Nutrition In Dialysis Patients Journals

Vitamin D deficiency is more prevalent in patients with hemodialysis than in patients with CKD predialysis, and is associated with decreased dietary intake of vitamin D. Restrictions on dialysis imposed to reduce dietary intake of phosphorus are likely to contribute to the development of hypovitaminosis D in patients with ESRD. The avoidance of dairy products (milk, yogurt, and cheese) has been as suggested by the dietician dialysis unit; as such foods are often high in phosphorus. The high incidence of vitamin D deficiency in patients with hemodialysis and poor consumption of vitamin D rich foods (also high in phosphates) indicated the likelihood of initiating hemodialysis leading to lower serum vitamin D, partially due to dietary limitations to reduce the intake of phosphate. The vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased morbidity and reduced survival in CKD and ESRD patients. The hypovitaminosis D etiologies in the ESRD population are not clear, but include limited exposure to sunlight, reduced skin synthesis of UVB-induced vitamin D and disturbed metabolism of vitamin D. In the United States, the intake of fortified foods, in particular dairy products, is a major source of vitamin D. Whether the physician/ nutritionist imposed on patients with hemodialysis levels of vitamin D, phosphorus-restricted renal diet has not been studied.