Bone Mineral Density

 Bone-mineral density (BMD) may be a measure of the inorganic mineral content in bone, and is one among the more informative assessments of bone quality in both clinical studies and forensic investigations. Several factors, like age, sex, disease, genetics, and lifestyle, affect BMD measurements, and normative standards must be applied for specific groups and individuals. One of the most common disorders associated with low BMD is osteoporosis and increased fracture risk, due to a decrease in bone strength and an increase in bone fragility. Medical conditions like polygenic disease or gland disease and different parameters like peak bone mass and biological time steroid deficiency conjointly impact BMD.

 

Single- and dual-energy gauge boson absorptiometry, quantitative computed picturing, and resonance imaging are variety of the technological modalities for BMD quantification, and each presents distinct benefits and limitations, depending on the aim of the analysis, the precise characteristics of the individual, the bone site under examination, and therefore the equipment and trained personnel available. Recently, BMD values were applied to forensic pathology during a sort of scenarios starting from age and sex estimation to the assessment of malnutrition and therefore the use of finite-element modelling. Despite technical and methodological inconsistencies reported in the literature on BMD readings, there is scope for expanding the use of this variable in forensic settings.