Biomarker Of Cancers

Biomarkers have many possible applications in oncology, including risk assessment, screening, medical diagnosis, determination of prognosis, prediction of response to medication, and monitoring of evolution of disease. Because of the integral role that biomarkers play in the least stages of disease, it's important that they withstand rigorous evaluation, including analytical validation, clinical validation, and assessment of clinical utility, before incorporation into routine clinical care. In this review we discuss key steps within the advancement of biomarkers, including ways to avoid offering bias and guidelines to follow when informing results of biomarker studies. Cancers represent group of unprecedentedly heterogeneous diseases that disturb humans with high frequency and contribute in significant manner to overall morbidity and fatality. Usually, an accumulation of DNA alterations irreversibly transforms normal cell into dysplastic and cancerous one. Molecular alterations are frequently found in processes resolved by growth factors, hormones and cytokines via their receptors. Alterations of many other genes directly or indirectly involved in the carcinogenesis and tumor evolution process have been demonstrated. The ideal biomarker mark off the events between exposure and disease, perform installation of dose response, identifies early events within the explanation, identifies mechanisms by which exposure and disease are related, reduces mis-classification of exposures or risk factors and disease, authorized variability and effect adjustment, enhanced individual and group risk assessments.    

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