Mini Review - Research on Chronic Diseases (2022) Volume 6, Issue 5

Why the HIV Epidemic is Not Over

Giuseppe Lanza*

Department of Neurology, University of Catania, Italy

*Corresponding Author:
Giuseppe Lanza
Department of Neurology, University of Catania, Italy

Received: 01-Sep-2022, Manuscript No. OARCD-22-75642; Editor assigned: 03-Sep-2022, PreQC No. OARCD-22-75642(PQ); Reviewed: 17- Sep-2022, QC No. OARCD-22-75642; Revised: 20-Sep-2022, Manuscript No. OARCD-22-75642(R); Published: 29-Sep-2022, DOI: 10.37532/ rcd.2022.6(5).104-106


Fear, smirch and ignorance. That’s what defined the HIV epidemic that raged through the world in the 1980s, killing thousands of people who may only have had a many weeks or months from opinion to death- if they indeed managed to be diagnosed before they failed. “With no effective treatment available in the 1980s, there was little stopgap for those diagnosed with HIV, facing enervating illness and certain death within times.


1 December 2018 marks the 30th anniversary of World AIDS Day – a day created to raise mindfulness about HIV and the performing AIDS pandemics. Since the morning of the epidemic, further than 70 million people have acquired the infection, and about 35 million people have failed. Moment, around 37 million worldwide live with HIV, of whom 22 million are on treatment [1].

When World AIDS Day was first established in 1988, the world looked veritably different to how it’s moment. Now, we’ve fluently accessible testing, treatment, a range of forest allment options, including pre-exposure prophylaxis of Prep, and services that can reach vulnerable communities [2].

In the late 1980s, still, “the outlook for people with HIV was enough grim, ” says Dr Rachel Baggaley, fellow of HIV testing and forest ailment at WHO. “ Antiretroviral were not yet available, so although we could offer treatment for opportunistic infections there was no treatment for their HIV. It was a veritably sad and delicate time [3]. With adding mindfulness that AIDS was arising as a global public health trouble, the first International AIDS Conference was held in Atlanta in 1985.

In those early days, with no treatment on the horizon, extraordinary forestallment, care and mindfulness- raising sweats were mustered by communities around the world – exploration programmes were accelerated, condom access was expanded, detriment reduction programmes were established and support services reached out to those who were sick, says Dr Andrew Ball, elderly counsel on HIV at WHO [4].

WHO established the Special Programme on AIDS in February 1987, which was to come the Global Programme on AIDS (GPA) under the leadership of the attractive Dr Jonathan Mann with the end of driving exploration and country responses? In 1988, two WHO dispatches officers, Thomas Netter and James Bunn, put forward the idea of holding an periodic World AIDS Day, with the end of adding HIV mindfulness, mobilising communities and championing for action worldwide. This December is the 30th anniversary of World AIDS Day, with the theme “Know Your Status ” [5].

It was not until 1991 that the HIV movement was ingrained with the iconic red strip. At that time New York grounded artists from the Visual AIDS Artists’ Caucus created the symbol, choosing the colour for its” connection to blood and the idea of passion — not only wrathfulness, but love.” This was the veritably first complaintmindfulness strip, a conception that would latterly be espoused by numerous other health causes [6].

  • The trouble to develop effective treatment for HIV is remarkable in its speed and success. Clinical trials of anti retroviral (ARVs) began in 1985 – the same time that the first HIV test was approved – and the first ARV was approved for use in 1987. still, a single medicine was set up to have only short- term benefits. By 1995, ARVs were being specified in colourful combinations. A advance in the HIV response was blazoned to the world at the 11th International AIDS Conference in Vancouver when the success of as “ largely active antiretroviral treatment ”( HAART) – a combination of three ARVs reported to reduce AIDS- related deaths by between 60 and 80 [7].

Effective treatment had arrived, and within weeks of the advertisement, thousands of people with HIV had started HAART. Still, not everybody would profit from this life- saving invention. Because of the high cost of ARVs, utmost low- and middle- income countries couldn’t go to give treatment through their public programmes. Similar injuries generated outrage in communities and demands for affordable medicines and public treatment programmes. General manufacturing of ARVs would only start in 2001 furnishing bulk, low- cost access to ARVs for largely affected countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, where by 2000, HIV had come the leading cause of death [8].

HIV/ AIDS aren’t a bare health issue as its circumstance is told by a number of socioprofitable rudiments. Health interventions alone, thus, cannot lead to forestalment. HIV forestalment requires combined cooperative sweats from all departments, institutions or associations in public life through their work and programme. Addressing the colourful socioprofitable factors the response to HIV needs to be multi-faceted and multi-sectorial [9].

The functional description of mainstreaming used by NACO is the “ Integrated, inclusive and multi-sectoral approach which transfers the power of HIV/ AIDS issues – including its direct and circular causes, impact and response to colourful stakeholders, including the government, the commercial sector and civil society associations ”. The focus of all associations in mainstreaming is to acclimatize their core business to respond to the challenges of HIV/ AIDS [10].

Mainstreaming approach gained ground with the consummation that the non-health sector can play an important and meaningful part in reducing vulnerability to HIV and alleviate impact of HIV on those infected and affected. It’s important to note that mainstreaming doesn’t replace the need for traditional approaches of forestalment, care, support and treatment for People Living with HIV; it may rather round and strengthen the same [11].

Involvement of colourful stakeholders and partnering with them (like Departments, institutions, civil society, tagged representativesGram Sabha, religious and opinion leaders etc.) are pivotal to spread mindfulness on HIV and AIDS, strengthen liaison with available services (ICTC, STI Clinic, ART Clinic etc.) to those who requires and reduce smirch and demarcation against PLHIV and also to reach out to maximum exposed population by public health system [12].

The reality of HIV and AIDS that push people and homes into poverty, in part by reducing ménage labour capacity and by adding medical charges is common. In some cases, HIV- related smirch and demarcation marginalize PLHIV and homes affected by the HIV epidemic and count them from essential services. The impact is felt on income, employment, consumption expenditure (especially nutrition, education and health care) and savings [13].

People Living with HIV (PLHIV) face colourful vulnerabilities similar as job instability, livelihood, poor access to health care installations, low access to nutritive support; education for children etc. tone and social smirch and demarcation diminishes social support system.

Global trends in HIV infection demonstrate an overall increase in HIV frequency and substantial declines in AIDS affiliated deaths largely attributable to the survival benefits of antiretroviral treatment. Sub-Saharan Africa carries a disproportionate burden of HIV, counting for further than 70 of the global burden of infection. Success in HIV forest allment in sub-Saharan Africa has the implicit to impact on the global burden of HIV. Notwithstanding substantial progress in spanning up antiretroviral remedy (ART), sub-Saharan Africa reckoned for 74 of the1.5 million AIDS affiliated deaths in 2013 [14].

Of the estimated 6000 new infections that do encyclopaedically each day, two out of three are in sub-Saharan Africa with youthful women continuing to bear a disproportionate burden. Adolescent girls and youthful women aged 15- 24 times have up to eight fold advanced rates of HIV infection compared to their manly peers. There remains a gap in women initiated HIV forestalment technologies especially for women who are unfit to negotiate the current HIV forestalment options of abstinence, gets change, condoms and medical manly circumcision or early treatment inauguration in their connections.


The possibility of an AIDS free generation cannot be realized unless we’re suitable to help HIV infection in youthful women. This review will concentrate on the epidemiology of HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa, crucial motorists of the continued high prevalence, mortality rates and precedence’s for altering current epidemic line in the region. Strategies for optimizing the use of being and decreasingly limited coffers are included.

Further, burden by increased illness, loss of jobs and income, rising medical charges, reduction of savings and other coffers, food instability, cerebral stress and social rejection further worsen the socio- profitable condition of people infected and affected by HIV. Children Affected by AIDS, tend to be more socially vulnerable. Similar condition could lead people infected and affected with HIV them towards rejection, marginalisation and poverty. Given these realities, it’s honoured that for population infected and affected by HIV and AIDS have requirements beyond HIV forest allment and treatment services. In these circumstances social & legal protection is imperative.

Social Protection in environment of HIV may be understood by “Set of programs, schemes & entitlements or legislation which help the HIV infected and affected family and utmost at Risk Population to alleviate the impact of HIV; reduce farther vulnerability as well as medium to lead the life with quality”.


The social protection is viewed with great significance for reducing vulnerabilities and to alleviate the impact of HIV. The strategy on social & legal protection is to reduce the impact of HIV by icing social entitlements & benefits of colourful weal schemes to PLHIV & affected families. It reduces the burden on ménage as well as vulnerabilities of people to infection. The social protection enterprise impacted appreciatively in perfecting the quality of life of PLHIV, CABA & MARPs and its availability ensures social, legal and profitable rights.



Conflict of Interest

There is no Conflict of Interest.


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