Short Communication - Interventional Pediatrics & Research (2020) Volume 3, Issue 3

Sports related concussions in Children and Adolescents

Paul Fogle

University of the Pacific Stockton, USA


Mild traumatic brain injury (concussion) is a relatively new area of concern for many pediatric specialist and neurologists, as well as speech-language pathologists, and physical and occupational therapists. However, concussions have occurred in children and adolescents for as long as they have played sports, fallen out of trees, or had other mild head injuries. Reports of youth concussions spiked by 71% between 2010 to 2015, according to a study of nearly 937,000 health insurance claims gathered by Blue Cross and Blue Shield. Davenport (2017) reported brain changes in high school American football players after one season of play. The incidence and prevalence studies may significantly underestimate the actual numbers of boys and girls with sports-related concussions because many individuals suffering from mild or even moderate TBI to not seek medical services. This presentation will discuss several aspects of sports-related concussion, including the neuroanatomical effects (e.g., tearing, shearing, and twisting of axons and dendrites and destruction of neurons); physical symptoms (e.g., being dazed and dizzy, headaches, nausea, drowsiness, and sleep problems); cognitive effects (e.g., attention, memory, orientation, reasoning, judgment, problem solving, and executive functions); and the behavioral, emotional and social effects (e.g., agitation, aggression, anger, low tolerance for frustration, emotional lability, egocentrism, disinhibition, impulsivity, and decreased social skills). In addition, the risk factors, such as history of concussions and gender of the athlete will be considered. The signs and symptoms of concussion observed by adults and those reported by children and adolescents will be presented. Hospital emergency department treatment practices for concussions will be reviewed. Intervention and management will be an emphasis in this presentation.


1. The Foundations of Communication Sciences and Disorders

2. Counseling Skills for Speech-Language Pathologists and Audiologists

3. Safety Awareness Functional Evaluation and Therapy Manual


Paul Fogle has been a speech-language pathologist since 1971 specializing in neurological disorders in adults and children, stuttering, and voice disorders. He is a Professor Emeritus and for 35 years taught courses on Anatomy and Physiology of Speech, Neurological Disorders in Adults and Children, Motor Speech Disorders, Dysphagia/ Swallowing Disorders, Gerontology, Cleft Palate and Oral-Facial Anomalies, Voice Disorders, and Counseling Skills for Speech- Language Pathologists. Dr. Fogle has worked extensively in hospitals, including VA, university, acute, subacute, and convalescent hospitals, and has maintained a private practice since 1981. He has presented numerous seminars, workshops, and short courses on a variety of topics at state, national, and international conventions and conferences, and all-day workshops in cities throughout the U.S. and in countries around the world. Dr. Fogle’s primary publishing has been textbooks and clinical materials. His website is: and his e-mail address is