Mini Review - Stem Cell Research and Regenerative Medicine (2023) Volume 6, Issue 3
Scheuermann's Disease can be Repopulated Using Blood from the Vertebra and Immature Stem Cells
Department of Stem Cell and Research, Georgia
Department of Stem Cell and Research, Georgia
Received: 01-June-2023, Manuscript No. srrm-23-102591; Editor assigned: 05-June-2023, Pre-QC No. srrm-23- 102591 (PQ); Reviewed: 19-June- 2023, QC No. srrm-23-102591; Revised: 24-June-2023, Manuscript No. srrm-23-102591 (R); Published: 30-June-2023, DOI: 10.37532/ srrm.2023.6(3).77-79
Stem Cells and peripheral blood are potential scaffolds and cell sources for Scheuermann’s Disease regeneration. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of PRF scaffolds and autologous uncultured Stem Cells peripheral blood on regeneration of knee Scheuermann’s Disease in rabbits. Three different types of PRF scaffolds were generated from peripheral blood (Ch-PRF and L-PRF) and Stem Cells combined with uncultured peripheral Stem Cells(BMM-PRF). The histological properties of these scaffolds were evaluated using hematoxylin-eosin staining, picrosirius red staining, and immunohistochemical staining. Scheuermann’s disease defect 3 mm in diameter and 3 mm deep was created in the trochlear groove of the femur of a rabbit. Different PRF scaffolds were then used to treat the defect. A group of rabbits with an induced Scheuermann’s Disease defect and not treated with scaffolds was used as a control. Regeneration of osteochondritic tissue was determined macroscopically (internal cartilage repair association score, using X-ray) and microscopically (hematoxylin and eosin staining, safranin O staining, toluidine staining, and histological Wakiya scale, immunohistochemistry). In addition to gene expression analysis of Scheuermann’s Disease markers. Ch-PRF had heterogeneous fibrin network structure and cell populations. L-PRF and BMM-PRF had a homogeneous structure with a uniformly distributed fibrin network. Ch-PRF and L-PRF contained populations of CD45- positive leukocytes embedded in fibrin networks, whereas peripheral blood within the BMM-PRF scaffolds was sensitive to the pluripotent stem cell-specific antibody Oct-4. It was positive. Rabbits implanted with autografts showed significantly improved articular cartilage and subchondral bone healing compared to the untreated group. A gradual regeneration was observed after 2, 4, and 6 weeks of PRF scaffold treatment, which was particularly pronounced in the BMM-PRF group. A combination of biomaterials containing autologous platelet-rich fibrin and uncultured peripheral Stem Cellspromoted regeneration of Scheuermann’s Disease in a rabbit model more than platelet-rich fibrin material alone. Our results indicate that autologous platelet-rich fibrin scaffolds in combination with uncultured Stem Cellsand peripheral blood may be a suitable therapy in addition to stem cell and biomaterial therapy to heal osteochondritic lesions.
Scheuermann’s disease regeneration• Platelet-rich fibrin• Tissue regeneration
Regeneration of cartilage remains a challenge in tissue engineering as it lacks neural and vascular components and thus has limited recovery potential after injury . Regenerative medicine brings a broader perspective to the treatment of cartilage damage and includes three key integrated components: Cell sources, scaffolds, growth factors. Although autologous chondrocytes are often used to regenerate articular cartilage, they also have the following drawbacks: B. Lack of cell source for large lesions and risk of dedifferentiation during in vitro culture. It has high proliferative and differentiation capacity and can be easily isolated from various mesenchymal tissues, thus promoting cartilage regeneration showed promising results . However, scaling an MSC requires extensive facilities and technical expertise, which may not be available in many locations. Recently, autologous peripheral blood stem cells (BMMCs) have been used with various agents as a promising cell therapy for various diseases. Previous animal studies and clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy and safety of BMMCs in treating cartilage lesions, are easier to isolate compared to MSCs, and do not need to be expanded in vitro before use.
These include a variety of growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and transforming growth factors that help regenerate both soft and hard tissues. Due to its molecular structure and low thrombin concentration, it serves as a suitable matrix for migration of endothelial cells and fibroblasts . Moreover, its PRF and availability of autologous origin increase the utility of this material and minimize surgical time. Many authors point to the application of PRF in cartilage and tendon tissue engineering, which has led to an increase in in vitro, preclinical, and clinical studies. Chondrogenesis is regulated by multiple cartilage-specific markers such as collagen, aggrecan (ACAN), SRY box transcription factor 9 (SOX9), and osteogenic markers such as alkaline phosphatase (ALPL) and bone gamma-carboxyglutamic acid protein (BGLAP). Characterized. RUNX family transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) is involved in tissue regeneration. Therefore, we conducted this study to investigate the effects of PRF scaffolds and autologous uncultured BMMCs on regeneration of Scheuermann’s disease in rabbit knees .
Biocompatibility is key to the successful application of tissue engineered tissue. Our study successfully demonstrated the biocompatibility and safety of autologous PRF scaffolds and uncultured BMMCs as transplanted biomaterials for in vivo cartilage repair. This is because these substances are autologous. No degenerative changes were observed in adjacent articular cartilage during the study period. Furthermore, neither inflammatory responses nor giant cells (common in inflammatory responses to foreign bodies) were observed in the implanted area of the experimental group.
Two weeks after surgery, the graft was almost completely resorbed . Our results showed that rabbits treated with PRF scaffolds in combination with BMMCs had a greater effect on regeneration of osteochondral defects than controls and PRF alone. This has been demonstrated both macroscopically and microscopically.
PRF scaffolds have been shown to have a positive impact on the healing of Shoyermann’s disease, both in terms of gross and histological findings. Many studies have been done using rabbits and other animal models. The therapeutic effect of PRF is primarily due to high concentrations of platelet-derived protein molecules that are primarily stored in and released from platelet α-granules. Among these, platelet-derived growth factors, including platelet-derived GF (PDGF), transforming GF-β1 (TGF-β1), and insulin-like GF (IGF-1), contribute significantly to chondrogenesis. By regulating cell proliferation, angiogenesis, inflammation, and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition, they act as potent promoters of chondrogenesis and tendon. The dense network of polymerized fibrin formed by PRF increases the uptake of circulating cytokines and growth factors. These molecules are released slowly and have a long-lasting effect at the site of injury. Furthermore, this release is facilitated by the formation of new growth factors from membrane-bound PRF leukocytes. Among the different types of white blood cells, lymphocytes are the most enriched . Lymphocytes act as local regulators in the healing process, which may explain why her PRF membranes of lymphocytes continue to produce large amounts of growth factors over long periods of time.
BMMCs have been shown to have therapeutic benefits in tissue regeneration. Numerous in vivo and clinical studies have been conducted on BMMC transplantation in various degenerative diseases such as orthopedic and traumatic diseases, heart disease and bone lesions . In the field of cartilage regeneration, Beckers showed that treatment of osteochondral defects in a goat model with BMMCs and chondrocytes promotes regeneration of macroscopic defects more than micro fractures. In 2014, Song et al. used a sheep model to compare the effects of stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and his BMMCs on the treatment of osteoarthritis. Results showed that BMSCs yielded higher quality cartilage repair than his BMMCs. However, they suggested that BMMCs are a viable alternative to BMSCs in the treatment of osteoarthritis. A 2020 study by Mohamed Salem found that a group treated with a combination of BMMC and PRF had better macroscopic and microscopic defects in Shoyerman’s disease than the other groups (PRF, BMMC alone, and a control group). I found that I was cured much better now .
BMMCs contain various cell populations such as: B. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC), hematopoietic stem cells and other cells. Of these, mesenchymal stem cells account for a very small proportion (0.01-0.001%) of the total peripheral blood, so the efficacy of BMMCs in tissue regeneration is not due solely to the MSC component of mesenchymal stem cells. Non-MSC items can have a significant impact on this process . This hypothesis is further supported by research by Joel K. In Wise, fresh uncultured BMMCs showed comparable osteogenesis to cultured and expanded MSCs when encapsulated in three-dimensional (3D) collagen-chitosan microspheres. Moreover, BMMCs can be administered directly without the need for in vitro culture compared to BMSCs, which require a cell culture process with many high quality requirements and are subject to various other risks . This not only reduces treatment time and costs, but also reduces the risk of reduced differentiation and migration capacity, contamination and other uncertainties of in vitro cultures.
In conclusion, the combination of autologous platelet-rich fibrin and uncultured peripheral stem cells, in contrast to the platelet-rich fibrin material alone, promotes regeneration of Scheermann’s disease in a rabbit model.
Combination of autologous platelet-rich fibrin scaffold and uncultured bone marrow. Peripheral blood for healing osteochondritic lesions could be a valuable approach in addition to stem cell and biomaterial therapy.
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