Mini Review - Journal of Labor and Childbirth (2022) Volume 5, Issue 6

A Brief Discussion on Amniocentesis and its Complications

Ehsan Kamani*

Department of Medical, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Iran

*Corresponding Author:
Ehsan Kamani
Department of Medical, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Iran

Received: 01-Oct -2022, Manuscript No. JLCB-22-79215; Editor assigned: 03-Oct-2022, PreQC No. JLCB-22-79215 (PQ); Reviewed: 17-Oct -2022, QC No. JLCB-22-79215; Revised: 20-Oct -2022, Manuscript No. JLCB-22-79215 (R); Published: 31-Oct -2022, DOI: 10.37532/jlcb.2022.5(8).94-96



Amniocentesis( also appertained to as an amniotic fluid test or, informally, an” amnio”) is a medical procedure (note 1) used primarily in antenatal opinion of chromosomal abnormalities and fetal infections as well as for coitus determination. In this procedure, a thin needle is fitted into the tummy of the pregnant woman. The needle punctures the amnion, which is the membrane that surrounds the developing fetus. The fluid within the amnion is called amniotic fluid, and because this fluid surrounds the developing fetus, it contains fetal cells. The amniotic fluid is tried , and the DNA within the collected fetal cells is tested for inheritable abnormalities.


Tapping into amniotic fluid had come a common practice by the medial 1950s, as it was used to remove redundant fluid from certain gravidity with hydramnios. Experimenters also realized that they could use the fetal cells from the amniotic fluid to determine the chromosomal coitus of the fetus [1]. This was important to families with a history of X-linked conditions, because XY (joker) children are more likely to inherit the complaint than XX (lady) children. In 1959, when French cytogeneticist Jerome Lejeune discovered that Down Syndrome is caused by trisomy 21, scientists realized the lesser eventuality that amniocentesis has in furnishing information about numerous different types of chromosomal abnormalities. By 1966, scientists were suitable to successfully culture fetal cells to perform a karyotype, which allowed them to visually see any large chromosomal abnormalities. Until themid-1970s, amniocentesis procedures were done without the visual guidance from an ultrasound. In 1972, croakers Jens Bang and Allen Northeved from Denmark were the first to describe an amniocentesis done using an ultrasound. Real- time ultrasound is now used during all amniocentesis procedures because it enhances the safety of the fetus [2].

The most common reason to have an amniocentesis performed is to determine whether a fetus has a inheritable complaint, like a chromosomal abnormality ( i.e., trisomy 21 which causes Down pattern). Amniocentesis( or another procedure, called chorionic villus slice( CVS) can diagnose these problems in the womb. These antenatal procedures can prove helpful to expectant guardians, as they allow for assessing the fetal health status and the feasibility of treatment [3,4].

An amniocentesis is generally performed in the alternate trimester between the 15th and 20th week of gravidity.(Women who choose to have this test are primarily those at increased threat for inheritable and chromosomal problems, in part because the test is invasive and carries a small threat of gestation loss. This process can be used for antenatal coitus perceptiveness and hence this procedure has legal restrictions in some countries [5,6].

Pitfalls Complications

The pitfalls and complications associated with amniocentesis include gestation loss, preterm labor and delivery, preterm unseasonable rupture of membranes, leakage of amniotic fluid, fetal injuries, Rhesus complaint in Rh negative cases, infections similar as chorioamnionitis or uterine infections, oligohydramnios, fetomaternal hemorrhage, vaginal bleeding, amniotic fluid embolism, hematoma of motherly skin, damage to girding motherly internal organs, motherly pain including surcharging, pressure, and cramping during the procedure,post-procedure discomfort, failure to culture cells, multiple amniotic fluid birth attempts, and psychosocial stressors [7,8].

A serious threat of amniocentesis is gestation loss. The medium for gestation loss following amniocentesis is unknown but may be a consequence of bleeding, infection, or trauma to the fetus or the amniotic sac as a result of the procedure. Studies from 2000 to 2006 estimated the procedure-affiliated gestation loss at0.6-0.86. The most recent methodical review of the literature and streamlined metaanalysis on the threat of gestation loss following amniocentesis was published in 2019. This study cites the amniocentesis-affiliated gestation loss to be0.30( 95CI,0.11-0.49) [9]. The prevalence of amniocentesis- related complications, including gestation loss and procedure failure, may be eased when performed by educated interpreters who complete 100 or further amniocenteses per time. Endured interpreters are more likely successfully complete the procedure taking only one perforation attempt. Multiple needle insertion attempts are associated with an increased threat of gestation loss [10].

Amniotic fluid embolism has also been described as a possible outgrowth. fresh pitfalls include amniotic fluid leakage and bleeding. These two are of particular significance because they can lead to robotic revocation in pregnant cases. While feting the forenamed pitfalls, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommend that individual testing options like amniocentesis be bandied with and offered to all cases that request them and that amniocentesis can be used after screening tests to confirm the presence of chromosomal abnormalities [11,12].

The antenatal opinion of chromosomal abnormalities can have social downsides as technology changes the way people suppose about disability and association. One disadvantage associated with amniocentesis is that the results from the test are generally not available until after 17 weeks gravidity. This is late in gestation and can affect in increased emotional torture for women who admit an unanticipated fetal opinion.In one sense, amniocentesis offers a window of control and in another, an anxiety- provoking responsibility to make rational opinions about complex, emotional and culturally contingent issues [13,14].


An amniocentesis is generally performed in the alternate trimester between the 15th and 20th week of gravidity, still it can be done at any latterly gravid age. The procedure is generally performed in the inpatient setting by a platoon of providers including but not limited to an Obstetrics and Gynecology( OBGYN) croaker , a nanny and an ultrasound technician. generally at least two providers are demanded for the procedure since hands must be used to hold the needle, hold the hype and hold the ultrasound inquiry. With transabdominal or transvaginal ultrasound guidance, a needle is fitted into the tummy at an angle through the muscle, into the uterus and into the amniotic depression. The amniotic fluid is also aspirated and the fluid is anatomized for inheritable abnormalities. There are colorful styles to gain samples including a single needle and double needle fashion. These ways have their own variations in how they’re performed including guidance of needle insertion position, and angle of needle insertion. The collected amniotic fluid is also submitted for laboratory testing for chromosomal abnormalities and the perforation point heals with time.



Conflict of interest



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