The Role of Tissue Engineering against COVID-19

Author(s): Javad Esmaeili

Given that the outbreak of the current coronavirus has been rampant since April 2020, there is a severe need for new diagnostic and treatment strategies to combat infectious diseases around the world. Coronaviruses are single-stranded RNA viruses that have a protein coating that protects them from environmental factors. The main components of this virus are Envelope protein, membrane glycoprotein, spike protein, nucleocapsid protein, and relatively large RNA genome. The coronavirus infects cells with the help of two proteins: an enzyme called an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE2), which helps cells attach, and an enzyme called serine proteinase (TMPRSS2), which causes cell infection. The analysis told that only a small number of human respiratory and intestinal cells have genes that express both ACE2 and TMPRSS2. Among them, three main cell types have been identified:1) Pulmonary cells called “type II pneumocytes” help to maintain air sacs, or alveoli, 2) Intestinal cells called enterocytes, which help the body to absorb nutrients, 3) Globulin cells in the nasal passages that secrete mucus.