Origin and evolution of the genetic code: Genetic Techniques and Biochemistry

Author(s): Dr. Abhishek Narayan Bharati

The study of genes and factors connected to all aspects of genes is referred to as genetics, which is the study of heredity. Gregory Mendel's writings in the middle of the 19th century marked the beginning of the scientific history of genetics. Genetics was primarily theoretical prior to Mendel, but after Mendel, the field expanded to include experimental genetics. In the first half of the 20th century, all areas of genetics and genetic technology made progress that laid the groundwork for subsequent advancements. The molecular foundations of genetics have become easier to comprehend in the second half of the twentieth century. The Human Genome Project's completion and subsequent rapid technological advancements have significantly enhanced our understanding of genetic factors, their effects on human life, and diseases. Over 1800 disease genes have been identified, over 2000 genetic tests have become available, and at least 350 products based on biotechnology have been introduced to the market. The pace of biological research has sped up dramatically thanks to new technologies, particularly next-generation sequencing, which has also raised expectations. This paper provides a concise history of genetics and brief explanations of the most common genetic methods. The deterioration of an organism's structure and function is referred to as aging, and molecular and cellular modifications can have a variety of individual-level effects over a lifetime. Hereditary, environmental, and stochastic factors all play a role in the accumulation of molecular errors that compromise adult stem cell functions. These interactions are the result of genetic and epigenetic interactions. In this section, we go over the known genetic factors that affect aging.