Nanoliposomes of supercritical carbon dioxide extract of small cardamom seeds: A potent hypocholesterolemic agent


Oral administration of 1,8-cineole-rich supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extract of small cardamom seeds in hypercholesterolemic Wistar albino rats resulted in restoring normal total cholesterol (TC) levels in the animals. These findings prompted us to encapsulate the aforesaid extract as nanoliposomes to enhance its shelf stabilitiy. Nanoliposome of the extractwas characterized and itsin vivo hypocholesterolemic efficacy was assessed in triton-X treated hypercholesterolemic rats. Atorvastatin served as the positive control in the in vivo study. PEGylated nanoliposomes of small cardamom seed extract (SN) were formulated using soya phosphatidylcholine and Tween 80 (composition standardized) using ultra-sonication (probe) technology. Entrapment efficiency of spherical SN (dp= 76.93 nm) was 84.20% possessing negative zeta potential value<30. The antioxidant potency and shelf stability of SN (T1/2 = 192 days at 4 ± 1 °C) were appreciably higher than that of the native extract and exhibited in vitro sustained release of the spiceutical from the same. The liposomes had thermal stabilities up to 250 °C and successful binding among their chemical constituents were confirmed by FT-IR and XRD spectra. Reduction in TC levels in rats co-administered with liposomes (550 mg/kg b.w.) and triton-X were comparable to that of atorvastatin-administered rats on day 35. Moreover, SN (550 mg/kg b.w.) exhibited inhibitory effects on HMG-CoA reductase activity in the animals. This study established nanoliposomes of small cardamom seed extract as natural alternative of statin in redressing hypercholesterolemia.