Lifestyle management: preventing Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular complications

Author(s): Rebecca S Stiegler, Paul Z Zimmet, Adrian J Cameron and Jonathan E Shaw

For individuals with Type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease is the principle cause of morbidity and mortality. Lifestyle management is recognized as being an essential part of diabetes and cardiovascular disease prevention. Meta-analyses demonstrate that lifestyle interventions, including diet and physical activity, led to a 63% reduction in diabetes incidence in those at high risk. ‘Real-world’ lifestyle modification programs have demonstrated encouraging improvement in risk factors for diabetes; however, the effect on diabetes incidence has not been reported. It has been demonstrated that lifestyle interventions reduce cardiovascular risk factors; however, data on long-term cardiovascular outcomes is lacking. The aim of this review is to discuss the current evidence of lifestyle interventions in the prevention of diabetes and cardiovascular disease.