Leishmaniasis: recombinant DNA vaccination and different approaches for vaccine development

Author(s): Tahereh Taheri, Sima Rafati

Designing an ideal vaccine against leishmaniasis using a suitable candidate antigen and appropriate antigen delivery system to induce the accurate type of immune response is a process still under investigation. There are some different strategies applied for vaccination against leishmaniasis including conventional and modern (genetically-modified vaccines) approaches. The type of induced immune response for each vaccine depends on the type of vaccine and route of administration, the amount and nature of the antigen/s, as well as adjuvant (if used). Recombinant DNA technology or genetic engineering has accelerated the identification of new types of prophylaxis approaches using crude lysates to single or multi-proteins, epitopes and DNA vaccines that are capable of creating less or more partial protection. At present, a few limited vaccine formulations are licensed in Brazil and Europe just for canines. Vaccine development for humans and even for canines is under serious study. In this review, we focus on current and suggested vaccination approaches based on recombinant DNA strategies against leishmaniasis.