Isolation and enumeration of Circulating Tumor Cells (CTC) as prognostic and predictive biomarkers in Post-Operative m-CRC

Author(s): Prathibha KS, Swaroop G*

Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) present a non-invasive, repeatable investigation of a patient‘s disease. In metastatic Colorectal Cancer (m-CRC) patients, CTC enumerations have been comprehensively studied in evaluating metastatic disease. CTC analysis has been shifting from enumeration to a more sophisticated molecular depiction of tumor cells, which is used for liquid biopsy of the tumor, reflecting cytological and molecular changes in metastatic patients over time. In this study, CTC enumeration in advanced and localized metastatic colorectal cancer highlights the vital gains as well as the challenges posed by various approaches, and their implications for advancing disease management. Detection of Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) or circulating free tumor DNA (ctDNA) to conduct chemotherapy and reporting prognosis is extremely important. In view of the detail, CTC has the potential to offer multiple samples by way of sequential minimally-invasive liquid biopsies. In fastidious, there is escalating evidence for the efficacy of CTCs in the clinical management of metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). Most studies confirming the association of elevated CTC counts with a worse prognosis. CTCs were first identified by Ashworth in 1869. CTC research has been vulnerable by the failure to constantly detect these typical cells. While the normal range of WBCs in human blood is 4.5-11 x109/L, there may only be a few CTCs. The most widely used CTC enumeration platform, Cell-Search (Veridex LLC, NJ, USA) was approved for clinical use. As treatment options expand for metastatic colorectal cancer (m-CRC), a blood marker with a prognostic and predictive role could guide treatment. Investigations were carried out that circulating tumor cells (CTCs) could predict clinical prognosis in patients with m-CRC. This pilot study demonstrates that CTCs can serve as both prognostic and predictive factors for patients with m-CRC. The presence of at least three CTCs at baseline and follow-up is a strong independent prognostic factor for inferior PFS and OS. When utilized in combination with imaging studies, CTCs provide additional prognostic information. There are several studies for which CTCs could have efficacy in metastatic colorectal cancer. The statistics suggest that CTCs may be used as a stratification feature in metastatic disease treatment trials. The current list of validated prognostic factors is short, with the only routine status being universally recognized. Further study should prospectively deal with modification of regimens based on unfavorable CTCs early in the course of treatment will result in enhancement in PFS or OS. As treatment has become more effective for metastatic disease, decision-making has become more complicated. Five classes of drugs are on hand for treatment. The most common initial chemotherapy is fluoropyrimidine with oxaliplatin or irinotecan. CTC levels were drawn at 3 to 5 weeks and 6 to 12 weeks, before PET imaging, which may lead to prospective regimen choices and standby patients from unnecessary drug toxicity by suggesting that an early change in treatment is defensible.