Harnessing the Immune Response for Regenerative Medicine Through Immunomodulation in Stem Cell Therapy.

Author(s): Azizullah Sheikh*

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have garnered immense attention in the field of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering due to their unique characteristics and remarkable therapeutic potential. This abstract provides an overview of MSCs, highlighting their biological properties, sources, isolation methods, and diverse applications in both preclinical research and clinical settings. MSCs are a type of multipotent stem cell that can differentiate into various cell types, including osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes, making them invaluable for tissue repair and regeneration. These cells can be derived from various sources, including bone marrow, adipose tissue, umbilical cord, and dental pulp. Isolation techniques involve adherence to culture surfaces, negative or positive selection, or fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). One of the key features of MSCs is their immunomodulatory capacity, enabling them to modulate immune responses and mitigate inflammation. This characteristic has led to their investigation in treating autoimmune diseases, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and even in the management of cytokine storms associated with severe infections, such as COVID-19. MSCs’ regenerative potential extends to tissue engineering, where they are utilized to create functional tissue constructs. They secrete a variety of trophic factors and extracellular matrix components that promote cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and tissue remodeling. Such attributes make MSCs promising candidates for healing injuries, such as cartilage defects, bone fractures, and cardiac tissue damage.