Glial Cells in the Peripheral Nerve System Commit to Physiologic Component as well as Cerebellar Blood Circulation Control

Author(s): Johnson Duckwel

A conceptual framework known as the neurovascular unit (NVU) has been proposed in an effort to provide a more comprehensive explanation of the connections that exist between the blood vessels and neural cells that make up the human brain’s grey matter. The neurons, astrocytes (astroglia), microvessels, pericytes, and microglia make up the majority of the NVU. Additionally, we believe that oligodendrocytes ought to be included in the white matter as an essential component of the NVU. Astrocytes, in particular, have piqued the interest of researchers due to their distinctive anatomical location; these cells are sandwiched in between the brain’s microvessels and neurons. Because of their location, it is possible that astrocytes might control cerebral blood flow (CBF) in response to neuronal activity. This would make sure that the neurons have enough glucose and oxygen to meet their metabolic needs. In fact, the adult human brain uses between 20 and 25 percent of the body’s glucose and oxygen, even though it only makes up 2 percent of the body’s weight. Because there are virtually no stores of glucose or oxygen in the brain, the CBF provides the brain with a continuous supply of these necessary energy sources; both intense and persistent suspension of CBF can unfavourably influence mind capabilities. Another significant putative function of the NVU is thought to be the removal of waste products and heat generated by neuronal activity. Astrocytes may supply neurons with fatty acids and amino acids in addition to glucose, according to recent research. The NVU as a whole will probably break down when astrocytic support is lost, which is the root cause of many neurological disorders. The astrocytes’ metabolic contributions to the NVU will be the focus of this review, which will examine both earlier and more recent research.