Gestational Diabetes: Diagnosis, Management, and Maternal-Fetal Outcomes

Author(s): James F

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a significant health concern during pregnancy, with potential adverse effects on both the mother and the fetus. This review aims to summarize the current understanding of GDM, including its diagnosis, management, and associated maternal-fetal outcomes. GDM is diagnosed through glucose screening tests, and early detection plays a crucial role in optimizing management strategies. Lifestyle modifications, including dietary changes and regular exercise, are the first-line approach for GDM management. However, pharmacological interventions, such as insulin therapy or oral antidiabetic agents, may be required in some cases. Adequate glycemic control is essential to minimize the risks of macrosomia, preterm birth, neonatal hypoglycemia, and other complications. Monitoring maternal blood glucose levels, along with regular fetal assessments, ensures appropriate management and reduces adverse outcomes. In addition, postpartum follow-up and lifestyle interventions are crucial for long-term maternal health and the prevention of future diabetes. Further research is needed to enhance our understanding of GDM pathophysiology and refine diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. A comprehensive approach involving multidisciplinary care is vital to optimize outcomes for both mother and baby in the context of gestational diabetes.