Effect of coke as a suspension of tramadol and diazepam on morphological and biochemical changes in the brain, heart and testes of male wistar ratsAuthor(s): Omotayo B. Ilesanmi, Omojuwa E. Oluwatosin, Emmanuella Mgbagwu, Temitope T. Odewale, Amany Magdy Beshbishy, Sarah Al-Rashed and Gaber El-Saber Batiha
Objectives: The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of coke on the reported toxicity of tramadol and diazepam. Methodology: A total of 48 animals were used for the experiment and were divided into 6 groups of 8 animals per group. Animals were observed for any physiological changes within 24 h of administration before sacrifice and the blood and tissue collected for biochemical (lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], glutathione transferase [GT], total antioxidant status [TAS]; glutathione [GSH], acetylcholinesterase [AChE]) and histological studies. Results: Tramadol only administered group and tramadol suspended in coke group showed that coke caused a significant increase in TAS (P<0.05), significant decrease in GT activity (P<0.05), and no significant effect on LDH activity. Suspension of diazepam in coke caused a significant decrease in GT activity and TAS as compared to diazepam only administered group (P<0.05), while no significant effect on LDH activity. Suspension of tramadol with coke did not improve tramadol effects on GSH concentration and AChE activity while suspension of diazepam in coke caused a significant increase in AChE in the brain and significant decrease in GSH concentration. Suspension of either drugs with coke had no significant effect on AChE and GSH in the testes. Histology study of the testes showed that abnormal seminefeous tubules shape, germ cell layer, absence of maturation stage and lack of spermatozoa caused by both drugs was not different when they are suspended in coke. Conclusion: Our results showed that suspension of tramadol and diazepam in coke can increase their toxicity on different organs, thus caution need to be taken when ingesting drugs with softdrinks as it may enhance the unwanted effects of the drugs.