Cardiac myxoma as cytokine producing tumour: A review

Author(s): Yoichi Ajiro

Cardiac myxoma is the most common primary cardiac tumour. Many cytokines participate in the pathophysiology and growth of cardiac myxoma. Inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1, interleukin-4, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, interleukin-12, tissue necrosing factor-α, and interferon-γ, contribute to the development of inflammation and inflammation-related symptoms and further affect tumour growth. Growth factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, insulin-like growth factor 1, and epidermal growth factor, contribute to angiogenesis and tumour growth and interfere with the inflammatory response. Recently, we reported a cardiac myxoma whose cells were positive for interleukin-1β and hemopoietic factor granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in addition to interleukin-6. This review summarises the current knowledge of cardiac myxomas as cytokine-producing tumours.