Biological and Chromosomal Modifications of Advanced Multipotent Regenerative Cells

Author(s): Lakshmi Shankar

A person’s lifestyle has a significant impact on several significant epigenetic alterations that occur from the earliest stages of skeletal development throughout life as a result of ageing and disease. Epigenetics is the study of genetic changes in gene expression resulting from environmental changes without causing mutations in the underlying DNA sequences. Cellular epigenetic profiles are dynamic and mediated by a variety of mechanisms, including histone modifications, noncoding RNA-associated gene silencing, and DNA methylation. Considering the important role of dysfunctional mesenchymal tissue in common age-related skeletal diseases such as osteoporosis and osteoarthritis, skeletal stem cells or mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their function during aging are, has been the subject of research into gene deregulation and how it mediates cellular senescence evolving epigenetic landscape. This review describes recent findings on epigenetic alterations in mesenchymal stem cells that influence growth and cell fate decisions associated with aging, nutrition, and exercise and bone disease.