Attachment styles as determinants of depression in adult patients with psychiatric disorders

Author(s): Zainab Khan and Fazeela Moghal

Objective: To find out the predictive relationship between adult attachment styles and depression in patients diagnosed with Schizophrenia, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), and Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders.

Methodology: A total of 130 patients (100 males 30 females) with an age range of 18-55 years, among which 49 were diagnosed with Schizophrenia, 30 with OCD, and 51 with Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders. The sample was recruited from Outpatient Departments (OPDs) of psychiatry of government and private hospitals through purposive sampling technique. The hypothesis for this study was “Depression would be predicted from Adult Insecure Attachment Styles in-patients with Schizophrenia, OCD and with Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders.” Urdu versions of Revised Adult Attachment Style (RAAS) were used to assess adult attachment styles, and Patient Health Questionnaires (PHQ-9), used to assess depression, along with that a demographic form was employed.

Results: Simple linear regression was calculated by using SPSS (22-version). Data analysis suggests 12.6% of the variance in depressive symptoms was explained by insecure attachment style (R2=0.126, F (1)=5.177, p ≤ 0.002).

Conclusion: These findings support a direct predictive relationship between insecure attachment style in adult patients with schizophrenia, OCD, and Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders. In conclusion, attachment anxiety and attachment-related avoidance link to depression in our South Asian culture. These findings are impactful especially when it comes to diagnosis, treatment planning, and interventions in a clinical population.