Acute and sub-acute toxicity of n-butanol extract from Mitracarpus hirtus leaves L. (DC.)

Author(s): Ousmane Faye1, Cheikh Sall1, Tonleu Linda Bentefouet1, Mamadou Soumboundou1, Fatou Bintou Sarr1, Awa Ndong2, Fatoumata Bah2, Robert Faomowe Foko2, Mathilde Cabral2, Guata Yoro Sy3 ,

Mitracarpus hirtus, grass of the Rubiaceae family, is a seasonal species. Among other things, it is traditionally used to treat skin diseases and diabetes, and as an antibiotic and antidote to insect bites and stings. In order to establish the safety of these treatments, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of the acute and sub-acute toxicity of the n-butanol extract of Mitracarpus hirtus leaves, the most active faction responsible for the anti-diabetic, antioxidant and anti-α-amylase activities. The results of this acute toxicity study on the n-butanol moiety of M. hirtus demonstrated that administration of single dose samples orally resulted in no deaths or behavioral changes across all of the different doses tested. The LD50 being greater than 5000 mg/kg body weight, the extract thus presents a toxicity index of 5 corresponding to almost non-toxic according to the Hodge and Sterner scale. Concerning the study of subacute toxicity or toxicity by repeated administration, the rats’ water and food consumption and the weights of the organs removed from the rats (liver, lung and kidney) did not undergo any significant change (p>0.05) compared to the control groups throughout the experiment. No significant disturbance on biochemical and haematological parameters was noted except a decrease of ASATS in females at high doses, index of a hepatoprotective effect of this extract. Histopathological analysis did not reveal any signs of cytolysis inherent to a possible toxicity of n-butanol extracts of M. hirtus leaves.