A Review on Neonatal cancerAuthor(s): Panayides Andreas
Neonatal cancer refers to any type of cancer that is diagnosed in a child under the age of one year. This type of cancer is rare and accounts for less than 1% of all childhood cancers. Neonatal cancer can occur in any part of the body, and the diagnosis and treatment of this disease can be very challenging. Neonatal cancer is a broad term that encompasses several types of cancers that occur in infants. The most common types of neonatal cancer include neuroblastoma, hepatoblastoma, retinoblastoma, and leukemia. Neuroblastoma is the most common type of cancer that occurs in infants, accounting for nearly 50% of all neonatal cancer cases. This type of cancer originates in the nerve cells that are present in the embryo or fetus. Hepatoblastoma is the second most common type of neonatal cancer and occurs in the liver. Retinoblastoma is a rare type of cancer that occurs in the retina of the eye. Leukemia is a cancer of the blood and bone marrow and can occur in both infants and older children. The causes of neonatal cancer are not well understood. In many cases, the disease appears to be caused by genetic mutations that occur in the developing fetus. Certain genetic conditions, such as Down syndrome and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, increase the risk of neonatal cancer. Exposure to certain toxins or chemicals during pregnancy may also increase the risk of neonatal cancer.