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The vertebrate retina
has ten unmistakable layers. From nearest to farthest from the vitreous body:
Inward constraining layer – storm cellar film explained by Müller cells.
Nerve fiber layer – axons of the ganglion cell bodies (note that a slight layer of Müller cell footplates exists between this layer and the inward restricting film).
Ganglion cell layer – contains cores of ganglion cells, the axons of which become the optic nerve filaments, and some dislodged amacrine cells.
Internal plexiform layer – contains the neurotransmitter between the bipolar cell axons and the dendrites of the ganglion and amacrine cells.
Internal atomic layer – contains the cores and encompassing cell bodies (perikarya) of the amacrine cells, bipolar cells, and level cells.
External plexiform layer – projections of poles and cones finishing off with the bar spherule and cone pedicle, separately. These make neural connections with dendrites of bipolar cells
and flat cells. In the macular locale, this is known as the Fiber layer of Henle.
External atomic layer – cell collections of bars and cones.
Outside constraining film – layer that isolates the internal section segments of the photoreceptors from their cell cores.
Internal fragment/external portion layer – inward sections and external portions of poles and cones. The external fragments contain an exceptionally specific light-detecting contraption.
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