Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Components

 The main explanation for TB is tubercle bacillus (MTB), a small, aerobic, nonmotile bacillus. The high lipid content of this pathogen accounts for several of its unique clinical characteristics. It divides every 16 to twenty hours, which is a particularly slow rate compared with other bacteria, which usually divide in but an hour. Mycobacteria have an outer membrane lipid bilayer. If a Gram's method is performed, MTB either stains very weakly "Gram-positive" or doesn't retain dye as a results of the high lipid and mycolic acid content of its cell wall. MTB can withstand weak disinfectants and survive during a dry state for weeks. In nature, the bacterium can grow only within the cells of a number organism, but M. tuberculosis can be cultured in the laboratory. Using histological stains on expectorated samples from phlegm (also called "sputum") scientists can identify MTB under a microscope. Since MTB retains certain stains even after being treated with acidic solution, it's classified as an acid-fast bacillus. The most common acid-fast staining techniques are the Ziehl–Neelsen stain and therefore the Kinyoun stain, which dye acid-fast bacilli a bright red that stands out against a blue background. Auramine-rhodamine staining and fluorescence microscopy are also used. The M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) includes four other TB-causing mycobacteria: M. bovis, M. africanum, M. canetti, and M. microti. M. africanum isn't widespread, but it's a big explanation for tuberculosis in parts of Africa. M. bovis was once a standard explanation for tuberculosis, but the introduction of milk has almost completely eliminated this as a public ill health in developed countries. M. canetti is rare and seems to be limited to the Horn of Africa, although a couple of cases are seen in African emigrants. M. microti is additionally rare and is seen almost only in immunodeficient people, although its prevalence could also be significantly underestimated.  

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