Mini Review - Journal of Labor and Childbirth (2022) Volume 5, Issue 5

Maternal Age and the Risk of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes

Vaclav Bunc*

Department of medical science, Charles University, Europe


*Corresponding Author:
Vaclav Bunc Department of medical science, Charles University, EuropeE-mail:


Received: 01-Aug -2022, Manuscript No. JLCB-22-72828; Editor assigned: 03- Aug -2022, PreQC No. JLCB-22-72828 (PQ); Reviewed: 17- Aug-2022, QC No. JLCB-22-72828; Revised: 22- Aug- 2022, Manuscript No. JLCB-22-72828 (R); Published: 31-Aug-2022, DOI: 10.37532/jlcb.2022.5(5).82-85


The age at which women give birth is rising steadily in the western world. Advanced
motherly age has been associated with adverse gestation issues. We assessed the
association between advanced motherly age and the threat of adverse motherly and
perinatal outgrowth in prim gravid and multigravida women. The increased eventuality for
negative gestation issues in both axes of reproductive age is a well- batted argument. The
end of this study was to dissect the frequencies and the outgrowth of gravidity conceived
at extreme motherly periods.


Late gravidity have been a sensitive subject in society and in the medical field since a couple times. Indeed, motherly age has been adding for several decades with numerous of this late gravidity between 40 and 45 times old. In France, the rearmost INSEE report shows that the proportion of pregnant women over 35 times rose from19.3 to21.3 between 2010 and 2016 [1]. This report states that about 5 of women who give birth are 40 times old or aged. The age of first gestation increased from29.5 in 2003 to30.4 in 2016. Decades before, a gestation was considered “ late ” if it was attained after 35 times, moment the threshold has shifted to 40 times or indeed 43 or 45 times according to the scientific literature. This is explained by a societal elaboration marked by a constantly adding position of studies by women who have further liabilities at work and thus delay their design of travail giving their first precedence to their professional career [2]. In addition, the adding development of medically supported gravidity (ART), particularly with access to oocyte donation in European countries, has lately been re-established

This retrospective study considered all single successive gravidity delivered in a tertiary referral centre between 2001 and 2014. Cases were distributed into 4 groups according to motherly age at delivery (< 17 times; 18- 28 times; 29- 39 times;> 40 times). The following issues were considered( amongst others) gestation- related hypertensive diseases( PRHDs), neonatal reanimation( NR), neonatal ferocious care unit( NICU) admission, periventricular leucomalacia (PVL), and grade 3 and 4 intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH). The study was a population- grounded cohort study and included women giving birth between January 2000 and December 2018 using data from the Dutch perinatal enrolment of Perined. Women were divided into age groups. We compared issues between women of 40- 44, 45- 49, and over 50 times old( the study groups) with women of 25- 29 times old( reference group), stratified for equality [3]. We employed multivariable retrogression to correct for possible confounders including styles of generality, multiple gravidity, race, and socio- profitable status. Our primary issues were motherly and perinatal mortality. Secondary issues included common motherly and perinatal complications, as well as cesarean section rate.

This retrospective study considered all single successive gravidity delivered in a tertiary referral center between 2001 and 2014. Cases were distributed into 4 groups according to motherly age at delivery (< 17 times; 18 – 28 times; 29 – 39 times;> 40 times). The following issues were considered( amongst others) gestation- related hypertensive diseases( PRHDs), neonatal reanimation( NR), neonatal ferocious care unit( NICU) admission, periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), and grade 3 and 4 intraventricular haemorrhage( IVH) [4].

This retrospective study considered,933 single successive gravidity carried out in our Obstetrics and Gynaecology Clinic in University Hospital Santa Maria Della Misericordia( tertiary referral center). The present study was approved by the internal review board, it was conducted in agreement with Helsinki Declaration and it followed the dictates of the general authorization to reuse particular data for scientific exploration purposes by the Italian Data Protection Authority. All women who delivered between January 2001 and December 2014 were eligible to be included in this study. Multiple gravidity were barred [5]. Motherly- fetal and neonatal data were gathered from clinical databases of our Obstetric and Neonatal installations. Cases were distributed into 4 groups according to motherly age at delivery(< 17 times; 18 – 28 times; 29 – 39 times;> 40 times). Particular data assessed were motherly age, equality, supported reduplication ways, provenance and education position (low training was considered below 8 times of study) [6]. gestation and neonatal issues assessed were gravid age at delivery, fetal donation, mode of onset of labour, mode of delivery, gestation- related hypertensive diseases (PRHDs), gravid diabetes mellitus( GDM), gravid age at birth, neonatal length, neonatal cranial circumference, placental weight, neonatal coitus, neonatal weight, apgar score at first and fifth nanosecond, eventual administration of antenatal corticosteroid profilaxis, intrauterine growth restriction( IUGR), small for gravid age (SGA), large for gravid age( LGA), presence of neonatal natural anomalies, neonatal torture pattern (RDS), neonatal reanimation( NR), neonatal ferocious care unit( NICU) admission, periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), grade 3 and 4 intraventicular hemorrhage( IVH), retinopathy of punctuality( ROP), and perinatal death [7].

Gravid age was calculated by the date of the last given menstrual period and verified by ultrasound examination during first and alternate trimester. The presence of hypertension was defined as a systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg or a diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg. The following particulars were grouped as PRHDs breakdown,pre-eclampsia,pre-eclampsia superimposed on habitual hypertension, and gravid hypertension [8]. Pre-eclampsia was defined as hypertension accompanied by proteinuria first detected after 20 weeks gravidity. Proteinuria was defined as the presence of urinary protein in attention further than0.3 g in a 24- h period (this generally correlates with 30 mg/ dl or lesser in a arbitrary urine determination). Gravid hypertension was diagnosed in the same way as pre-eclampsia, but without proteinuria, and breakdown was diagnosed in the same way aspre-eclampsia, but with seizures. Habitual hypertension was diagnosed when hypertension was present before the 20th week of gestation. IUGR was defined as the sonographic finding of foetal weight below the tenth percentile of anticipated weight for gravid age (using Headlock formula), linked with the increased pulsatility indicator of umbilical roadway lesser than two standard diversions, and apost-partum verification with a foetal weight under the 10th centile at birth. In this study, SGA and LGA were defined as neonatal weight under the 10th and over the 90th percentiles for gravid age, independently. Preterm delivery was defined as delivery being before 37 completed weeks of gravidity. Over the course of our study period, the diabetes webbing system was changed. Up until 2010 a universal 50 g oral glucose challenge was performed (as preliminarily described between 2010 and 2011 the universal webbing system changed as preliminarily described and starting from 2011 gravid diabetes was diagnosed through the 75- g two- hour oral glucose forbearance test before or after 24 weeks of gravidity in the alternate trimester according to the presence of threat factors. All foetuses in pants or abnormal donation were delivered by cesarean section [9]. A opinion of PVL was established on the base of glamorous resonance imaging findings, routinely performed on the base of Volpe’s study. Grade 3 and 4 intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) were diagnosed using cranial ultrasound and classified according to Papile’s delineations. ROP was diagnosed by an educated ophtamologist and classified according to the transnational bracket of ROP. Perinatal death was defined as death that occurs at lower than 28 days of age and fetal deaths at a gravid age of 20 weeks or further [10].


Statistical analysis was performed using R software (interpretation3.4.1; R Core platoon (2017). R A language and terrain for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. URL https//www.R-project.

org/.). P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Data are presented as standard and interquartile range( IQR) for nonstop non parametric variables; mean ± standard divagation for nonstop parametric variables. Dicotomic variables were enciphered as chance and absolute values, except for missing values (NA). The results of logistic retrogression models were presented as odds rate (OR) at 95 confidence interval (CI). The distribution of nonstop variables was estimated with Kolmogorov- Smirnov test to descry whether the distribution was normal or not. For nonstop variables the following statistical tests were employed t- test for parametric variables and Wilcoxon test for nonstop non parametric variables [11]. latterly, logistic retrogression analysis was performed, considering established issues as dependent variables and the possible threat factors for similar outgrowth as independent variables [12]. In the multivariate model we took into account all possible prophetic factor with p<0.200 in univariate analysis. The original multivariate model included all variables and their relations. When relations turned out to be non-significant, analysis without commerce model was used. In addition, the p- values of the multivariate analysis were acclimated using the false discovery rate test [13].

We reviewed the clinical records of, 211 women who delivered at Sant ’ Anna University Hospital, Turin, Italy, in the period between 2009 and 2015. Of these, 3798 women progressed over 40 times were divided into two age groups( 40 − 44 times and ≥ 45 times). Women of any equality, with singleton or binary gravidity, or with supported reproductive technology gravidity were included. Women progressed lower than 40 times were considered as controls. Primary outgrowth measures were motherly and perinatal complications. Comparisons were performed using Chi-square test and Fisher’s exact test. Univariate analysis and logistic retrogression analysis were performed to test the possible independent part of motherly age as a threat factor for adverse gestation outgrowth [14].


A gestation after 40 times old is worth considering moment as far as the threat factors are controlled and understand by the case and the obstetrician. still, they’ve a significantly advanced pitfalls of cesarean, preterm delivery, pre-eclampsia, gravid diabetes, and fetal death in utero( FDIU). It’s thus the responsibility of the obstetrician to inform rightly these women in a detailed way, to assure them and to acclimatize the monitoring of their gestation consequently. The threat of adverse motherly and perinatal issues for women over 40 times old surges as age increases. A new aspect was the harmonious increased pitfalls not only for prim gravid women but also for multigravida.


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