The COVID pandemic leading to the emergence of a new threat: Cold agglutinin disease

Author(s): Ferit Cetinkayaz

As you know Cold Agglutinin Disease (CAD), characterized by the development of autoimmune hemolytic anemia, particularly at temperatures of +4 Celsius, is quite rare. The disease can be asymptomatic, but can also present with clinical presentations that range from anemia, hemolysis-related bilirubinemia, Reynaud’s phenomenon, and even organ dysfunction. The pathogenesis is caused by cold-induced autoantibodies against the “i” surface antigen on red blood cells, resulting in agglutination. Cold agglutinin disease is classified as primary or secondary. Secondary CAD is caused by autoimmune diseases, lymphoid malignancy, or infections.