Short note on cancer immunotherapy

Author(s): Christiana Williams

Cancer immunotherapy comprises the use of immunological agents such as cytokines, vaccines, cell treatments, and humoral, transfection agents to manipulate the immune system. The antitumor response of the host must be boosted by increasing the number of effector cells and soluble mediator production, while suppressor mechanisms must be lowered by creating a tumor-killing environment and modulating immunological checkpoints. Immunotherapy appears to work better in more immunogenic tumors. Bladder cancer was the initial indication for immunotherapy in 1970. Immune checkpoint inhibitors are a hot issue in bladder cancer clinical trials. Despite the notion that breast cancer is immunologically silent, several preclinical and clinical studies have shown that immunotherapy can improve breast cancer patients’ clinical outcomes. Cervical cancer, brain cancer, head and neck cancer, colorectal cancer, and esophageal cancer are all getting new immune-based cancer treatments.