Prosthetic valve endocarditis: state of the heart ***Management of prosthetic valve endocarditis

Author(s): Avish Nagpal, Muhammad R Sohail ,James M Steckleberg

Prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) is a rare but serious complication of cardiac valve replacement surgery and is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Despite significant advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis and management of this disease process, the rates of undesirable outcomes, including mortality directly attributable to infection, remain unacceptably high. The purpose of this article is to provide an up-to-date review of the changing epidemiology, microbiology and pathogenesis of PVE as well as review state-of-the-art diagnostic approaches and treatment for PVE, including the controversies surrounding the role of surgery for optimal management.