miRNA-mediated immune regulation and immunotherapeutic potential in glioblastoma

Author(s): Krishan Jethwa, Jun Wei, Kayla McEnery & Amy B Heimberger

Glioblastoma (GB), the most common primary neoplasm of the CNS, remains universally fatal with standard therapies and has a mean overall survival time of only 14.6 months. Even in the most favorable situations most patients do not survive longer than 2 years. Another hallmark of GBs, apart from the poor control of proliferation, is an immune suppressed tumor microenvironment. miRNAs usually bind the 3´ untranslated region of target mRNAs and direct their post-transcriptional repression. Certain miRNAs are known to have altered expression levels in GB tumors, and in many immune cell subtypes. miRNAs have been found to serve important roles in gene regulation and are implicated in many processes in oncogenesis and immune deregulation. In this article we focus on the miRNAs involved in gliomagenesis and in the regulation of the immune response. We also present current challenges and miRNA immunotherapeutic strategies that should be investigated further.