Histopathologic aspects of the so-called chronic hyperplastic candidiasis: An analysis of 36 cases

Author(s): Paulo Sergio Souza Pina

Background: The present study aimed to analyze the histopathologic aspects of cases diagnosed as chronic hyperplastic candidiasis (CHC) in an oral pathology service, pointing out the most important features found.

Methods: All cases histopathologically diagnosed as CHC between 2002 and 2018 were retrieved from the files of the service. Data of the patients and the lesions were collected. Histopathological analysis was performed to evaluate the microscopic characteristics and the amount of Candida present.

Results: Thirty-six cases of CHC were retrieved. Women were more affected and there was a predilection for whites. Most lesions appeared as nodules or a white plaque, asymptomatic, on the tongue, or buccal mucosa. Histopathologically, statistical significance was noted for the presence of epithelial hyperplasia, exocytosis, and mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate. Interestingly, only the association between dysplasia and the amount of fungus was noted. Conclusions: CHC appears to be a distinct entity presenting typical histopathologic aspects. CHC might even show epithelial dysplasia. In those cases, the presence of a large amount of Candida together with other histopathological features should lead to the diagnosis of CHC and subsequent treatment. However, close follow up is important.