Evaluation of Pharmacological Safety and Genetic ToxicologyAuthor(s): Mohammad Abdollahi*
Forsythin, the main ingredient in Forsythia suspensa, is widely used clinically to treat fever, gonorrhoea, ulcers, and viral colds. Forsythin’s potential genetic toxicity and human safety were the goals of this study. The Ames test, chromosome aberration (CA) test, and bone marrow micronucleus (MN) test in vivo were used to evaluate the genetic toxicity of forsythin in accordance with Good Laboratory Practice regulations and test guidelines. Five Salmonella typhimurium strains were subjected to various concentrations of forsythin in the presence or absence of the S9 mixture in the Ames test, and the number of His + revertant colonies were then counted. Chromosome aberrations were observed in Chinese hamster lung (CHL) fibroblast cells treated with various concentrations of forsythin, mitomycin C, or cyclophosphamide in the presence or absence of the S9 mixture during the CA test. In the MN test, the ratios of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) and erythrocytes (PCE/(PCE + NCE)) were measured in bone marrow taken from mice that had undergone various treatments. Beagle dogs were then divided into four groups—a negative control, a low dose, a medium dose, and a high dose—and a telemetry system was used to test whether or not forsythin was safe to use. According to the Ames test results, the presence or absence of the S9 mixture did not significantly increase the number of colonies in any of the test strains or treatments. In the CA test, the number of aberrant cells in CHL fibroblast cells treated with low, medium, and high doses of forsythin for 24 to 48 hours in the absence of the S9 mixture was 5.0/2.5, 4.5/1.5, and 5.0/5.0, while the number was 5.0, 5.0, and 4.5 in the presence of the S9 mixture. These results demonstrated that there was no significant difference between the positive and negative control groups when the S9 mixture was present (2.0) or not (4.0/2.5 for 24 or 48 hours). The MN test revealed that forsythin had no cytotoxicity because the PCE/ (PCE + NCE) values in the negative, positive, and treatment groups were all greater than 20%. Additionally, the telemetry technique revealed no significant toxicological effects of forsythin on the conscious beagle dogs of various groups’ electrocardiograms, temperature, respiration, or other physiological indicators. Forsythin’s low likelihood of genetic toxicity and absence of significant toxicological effects supported our hypothesis that it is suitable for further research and application.