Breast Cancer Risk Factors and Preventative Measures: A Review

Author(s): Jennifer Stewart*

Breast cancer is the second largest cause of mortality among women from cancer. Breast cancer is a multi-step process involving various cell types, and prevention is still difficult around the world. One of the most effective ways to avoid breast cancer is to diagnose it early. Breast cancer patients in some developed nations have a 5-year relative survival rate of more than 80% due to early detection and treatment. Great strides have been achieved in the understanding of breast cancer and the development of prevention strategies in the last decade. Breast cancer stem cells have disclosed the aetiology and tumour drug-resistant mechanisms, and numerous genes related to breast cancer have been discovered. People now have more pharmacological alternatives for breast cancer chemoprevention, and biological prevention has recently been created to improve patients' quality of life. We will outline major studies on pathogenesis, associated genes, risk factors, and preventative strategies on breast cancer that have been published in recent years in this review. These findings are an important step forward in the ongoing battle against breast cancer.