Review Article - Pharmaceutical Bioprocessing ( 2017) Volume 5, Issue 3
A review of the most important native medicinal plants of Iran effective on cutaneous Leishmaniasis in mouse model
- *Corresponding Author:
- Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei
Medical Plants Research Center
Basic Health Sciences Institute
Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences
E-mail: [email protected]
Leishmaniasis is a zoonotic parasitic disease that is caused by different Leishmania species. Most cases of Leishmaniasis are reported from Afghanistan, Saudi Arabia, Algeria, Brazil, Iraq, and Iran. Antimony compounds have long been used as standard treatment and first line drugs for Leishmaniasis, but Leishmania species have recently acquired drug resistance. Nowadays, medicinal plants are being increasingly used to treat parasitic diseases especially Leishmaniasis. In this review, the search terms Leishmania, Leishmaniasis, mouse, Iran, and medicinal plants were used to retrieve publications from databases such as Scopus, Islamic World Science Citation Center, Scientific Information Database, and Magiran. According to the results of this review, nine medicinal plants, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Matricaria chamomilla, Cathrantus roseus, Echinacea purpurea, Lawsonia inermis, Artemisia sieberi, Berberis vulgaris, Allium sativum L., and Lavandula spica L. have been reported to be effective on Leishmaniasis wound in mouse model. Lawson, berberine, jatrorrhizine, colombamine, palmatine, oxyacanthine, berbamine, berulicin, magnoflorine, allicin, eucalyptol, paracymene, alphapinene, caffeic acids, alkylamides, echinacosides, glycoproteins, polysaccharide, chamazulene, pigenin, trihydroxyflavone, and patholiterin, berberrubine, flavonoid compounds, santonin, and coumarin are the active compounds of the native medicinal plants of Iran that are effective on Leishmaniasis wound.
mouse, leishmaniasis, medicinal plants, Iran
Leishmaniasis is a zoonotic parasitic disease that is caused by different Leishmania species . The most common form of Leishmaniasis is cutaneous that is widely known as Salak in Iran . Each year, around two million cases of Leishmaniasis are reported . In Iran, about 15000 cases of cutaneous Leishmaniasis occur each year . Depending on the type of Leishmania species, Leishmaniasis causes a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations . Most cases of Leishmaniasis are reported from Afghanistan, Saudi Arabia, Algeria, Brazil, Iraq, and Iran .
Antimony compounds have long been used as standard treatment and first line drugs for Leishmaniasis. These drugs require repeated injections and therefore are not well tolerated by the patients, which is a reason for low efficiency of such drugs . In the recent years, Leishmania species have acquired drug resistance [8,9]. Although the cause of Leishmaniasis has long been detected, there has not yet been any definite treatment for cutaneous Leishmaniasis .
Complementary and alternative medicine refers to those medical interventions that are not widely taught in medical schools and are not commonly accessible in hospitals . Complementary and alternative medicine includes several disciplines, namely phytotherapy, message therapy, and acupuncture, most of which were derived from nations’ cultures and histories . Herbal medicine and phytotherapy have long attracted public attention [12-15]. Medicinal plants represent the most important constituent of phytotherapy. Medicinal plants are those plants whose one or more organs contain active compounds [16-21].
Medicinal plants are closely linked with the history of human life. Man in all historical periods has needed medicinal plants to relieve his physical suffering, and using these plants has always been one of the effective methods of treatment . Nowadays, medicinal plants are being increasingly used to treat parasitic diseases especially Leishmaniasis [23-26].
Materials and methods
In this review, the search terms Leishmania, Leishmaniasis, mouse, Iran, and medicinal plants were used to retrieve publications from databases such as Scopus, Islamic World Science Citation Center, Scientific Information Database, and Magiran. Then, the relevant articles were reviewed.
According to the results of this review, nine medicinal plants, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Matricaria chamomilla, Cathrantus roseus, Echinacea purpurea, Lawsonia inermis, Artemisia sieberi, Berberis vulgaris, Allium sativum L., and Lavandula spica L., have been reported to be effective on Leishmaniasis wound in mouse model (Table 1).
|Row||Scientific name||Family name||Persian name||Effect/Description||Ref.|
|1||Eucalyptus camaldulensis||Myrtaceae||Eucalyptus||An interventional-experimental study on BALB/c mice demonstrated that 40 µg/ml of methanolic E. camaldulensis extract exerted anti-leishmaniasis effect on cutaneous leishmaniasis due to an Iranian strain Leishmania major.|||
|2||Matricaria chamomilla||Asteraceae||Chamomile||An interventional-experimental study on BALB/c mice demonstrated that leishmaniasis wound improved in 58.3% of group treated with M. chamomilla tea.|||
|3||Cathrantus roseus||Apocynaceae||Vinca||An interventional-experimental study on BALB/c mice demonstrated that 30 µg/ml of purified C. roseus extract caused improvement of leishmaniasis wound due to L. major.|||
|4||Echinacea purpurea||Asteraceae||purple coneflower||An interventional-experimental study on laboratory mice demonstrated that 200 µg/ml of purified E. purpurea extract caused improvement of leishmanisis wound due to L. major.|||
|5||Lawsonia inermis||Lythraceae||Henna||An interventional-experimental study on BALB/c mice demonstrated that ethanolic L. inermis extract 80% ointment caused decrease in the diameter of leishmaniasis wound due to L. major.|||
|6||Artemisia sieberi||Asteraceae||Sagebrush||An interventional-experimental study on BALB/c mice demonstrated that hydroalcoholic A. sieberi extract 5% ointment caused decrease in the diameter of leishmaniasis wound due to L. major.|||
|7||Berberis vulgaris||Berberidacea||Barberry||An interventional-experimental study on BALB/c mice demonstrated that alcoholic B. vulgaris extract 80% ointment caused decrease in the diameter of leishmaniasis wound due to L. major.|||
|8||Allium sativum L||Amaryllidaceae||Garlic||An interventional-experimental study on BALB/c mice demonstrated that aqueous A. sativum extract ointment caused decrease in the diameter of leishmaniasis wound due to L. major.|||
|9||Lavandula spica L.||Lamiaceae||Lavender||An interventional-experimental study on BALB/c mice demonstrated that L. spica extract 80% ointment caused decrease in the diameter of leishmaniasis wound due to L. major.|||
Table 1. The native medicinal plants of Iran effective on leishmaniasis wound in mouse model.
According to the evidence on medicinal plants in Iran, E. camaldulensis, M. chamomilla, C. roseus, E. purpurea, L. inermis, A. sieberi, B. vulgaris, A. sativum, and L. spica are effective on Leishmaniasis wound. L. inermis has antimicrobial effect and its active compound is lawson [27-36]. B. vulgaris has hypotensive effect [37,38]. This plant contains berberine, jatrorrhizine, colombamine, palmatine, oxyacanthine, berbamine and magnoflorine [39,40]. A. sativum has antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal effects [41-45]. Allicin is the main compound of A. sativum [46,47]. In traditional medicine, E. camaldulensis is used to treat infection and common cold .
Eucalyptol, paracymene, and alpha-pinene are some of the compounds of E. camaldulensis . E. purpurea exerts antioxidant effect [50,51]. This plant contains caffeic acids, alkylamides, echinacosides, glycoproteins, and polysaccharide . Phytochemical investigations demonstrated that M. chamomilla contains chamazulene, pigenin, trihydroxyflavone and patholiterin . B. vulgaris is rich in antioxidant compounds such as berbamine, berberine, and berberrubine [54,55]. B. vulgaris is used to treat diabetes and hypertension . A. sieberi contains flavonoid compounds, santonin, and coumarin .
The evidence indicates that in addition to antiworm activity, A. sieberi has many biological activities such as microbicidal, antifungal, virucidal, and antiparasitic. Besides that, the analgesic, antioxidant, and vasodilatory effects of this plant were confirmed [58-64].
Lawson, berberine, jatrorrhizine, colombamine, palmatine, oxyacanthine, berbamine, magnoflorine, allicin, eucalyptol, paracymene, alpha-pinene, caffeic acids, alkylamides, echinacosides, glycoproteins, polysaccharide, chamazulene, pigenin, trihydroxyflavone, sirranoside and patholiterin, berberrubine, flavonoid compounds, santonin, and coumarin are the active compounds of the native medicinal plants of Iran that are effective on Leishmaniasis wound.
The mechanism actions of the presented plants are not clearly established. Plants contain multiple compounds having antimicrobial activities for protection against microorganisms. The mechanisms actions of plant compounds in general have been attributed to various factors including disintegration in cytoplasmic membranes, electron flow, active transport and coagulation of the cell content and destabilization of proton motive force [65,66]. The most important factors responsible for antimicrobial actions are hydrophobic properties that allow lipids penetration from the bacterial cell membranes, disturbing cell structures which in turn imposes more penetration . They also may act on the proteins of cytoplasmic membranes or ATPase enzymes located on cytoplasmic membranes which are surrounded by lipid molecules, or cause distortion of lipid-protein interaction, or interact with hydrophobic parts of the proteins or act on the enzymes which are involved in the synthesis of microbial structural sections [68-70]. In some plants, terpenes, for example, obtained from essences have high level of antibacterial activities . Phenolic compounds have been shown to mostly have antibacterial and anti Leishmania antiactivities. These compounds are available in a lot of plants. Hence, these herbs may also possess anti-Leishmania activities. In sum, plants have been used since ancient times by various communities for treatment various of diseases, including Leishmaniasis. Medicinal plants have the potential for the production of new drugs to be used as alternative or complementary with conventional drugs. They may decrease the costs and improve the quality of treatment.
- Leishmaniasis. In: Tropical Disease Research Progress. 1995-1996: 13th Programme Report. Geneva, Switzerland. World Health Organization (1997).
- Statistics of cutaneous leishmanaisis in Iran: Hearing before National Leishmaniasis Committee, Office of Zoonoses, Center of Disease Control, Ministry of Health and Medical Education.
- Desjeux P. The increase in risk factors for leishmaniasis worldwide. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 95(3): 239-243 (2001).
- Saebi A. Parasitic Disease in Iran, protozoan diseases. Tehran: Enghelabe Eslami Publications and Eduaction Organization (2003).
- Monzote L, Montalvo AM, Scull R et al. Activity, toxicity and analysis of resistance of essential oil from Chenopodiumambrosioides after intraperitoneal, oral and intralesional administration in BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania amazonensis: a preliminary study. Biomed. Pharmacother. 61(2): 148-153 (2007).
- Singh S, Sivakumar R. Challenges and new discoveries in the treatment of leishmaniasis. J. Infect. Chemother. 10(6): 307-315 (2004).
- Dowlati Y. Treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (Old World). Clin. Dermatol. 14: 513-517 (1996).
- Firooz A, Khamesipour A, Ghoorchi MH et al. Imiquimod in combination with meglumineantimoniate for cutaneous leishmaniasis: A randomized assessor-blind controlled trial. Arch. Dermatol. 142, 1575-1579 (2006).
- Hadighi R, Mohebali M, Boucher P et al. Unresponsiveness to Glucantime treatment in Iranian cutaneous leishmaniasis due to drug resistant Leishmania tropica parasites. PloS. Med. 3(5), e162.
- Eisenberg DM, Kessler RC, Foster C et al. Unconventional medicine in the United States. Prevalence, costs, and patterns of use. N. Engl. J. Med. 328(4): 246-252 (1993).
- Kayne SB. Traditional medicine: a global perspective. Pharmaceutical Press, London (2010).
- Samani BH, Khoshtaghaza MH, Lorigooini Z et al. Analysis of the combinative effect of ultrasound and microwave power on Saccharomyces cerevisiae in orange juice processing. Innov. Food. Sci. Emer. Technol. 32, 110-115 (2015).
- Lorigooini Z, Kobarfard F, Ayatollahi SA. Anti-platelet aggregation assay and chemical composition of essential oil from Allium atroviolaceum Boiss growing in Iran. Intl. J. Biosci. 5(2), 151-156.
- Lorigooini Z, Ayatollahi SA, Amidi S et al. Evaluation of anti-platelet aggregation effect of some Allium species. Iran. J. Pharm. Res. 14(4): 1225 (2015).
- Fasihzadeh S, Lorigooini Z, Jivad N. Chemical constituents of Allium stipitatum regel (persian shallot) essential oil. Der. Pharmacia. Lettre. 8 (1): 175-180 (2016).
- Ghasemi S, Lorigooini Z. A review of significant molecular mechanisms of flavonoids in prevention of prostate cancer. J. Chem. Pharm. Sci. 9, 3388-3394 (2016).
- Rabiei Z, Bigdeli M, Lorigooini Z. A review of medicinal herbs with antioxidant properties in the treatment of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. J. Babol. Uni. Med. Sci. 17(12), 45-76 (2015).
- Zomorodian K, Moein M, Lori ZG et al. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil from Myrtus communis leaves. J. Essential. Oil. Bearing. Plants. 16(1), 76-84 (2013).
- Samani BH, Zareiforoush H, Lorigooini Z et al. Ultrasonic-assisted production of biodiesel from Pistacia atlantica Desf. oil. Fuel. 168, 22-26 (2016).
- Zareiforoush H, Minaei S, Alizadeh MR et al. Design, development and performance evaluation of an automatic control system for rice whitening machine based on computer vision and fuzzy logic. Com. Elec. Agri. 124, 14-22 (2016).
- Samani BH, Khoshtaghaza MH, Minaei S et al. Design, development and evaluation of an automatic fruit-juice pasteurization system using microwave-ultrasonic waves. J. Food. Sci. Technol. 53(1), 88-103 (2016).
- Chouhan G, Islamuddin M, Sahal D et al. Exploring the role of medicinal plant-based immunomodulators for effective therapy of leishmaniasis. Frontiers. Immunol. 5 (2016).
- Iwu MM, Jackson JE, Schuster BG. Medicinal plants in the fight against leishmaniasis. Parasitol. Today. 10(2), 65-68 (1992).
- Fournet A, Barrios AA, Munoz V. Leishmanicidal and trypanocidal activities of Bolivian medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol. 41(1), 19-37 (1994).
- Bahmani M, Saki K, Ezatpour B et al. Leishmaniosis phytotherapy: Review of plants used in Iranian traditional medicine on leishmaniasis. Asian. Pacific. J. Trop. Biomed. 5(9), 695-701 (2015).
- Torabi N, Mohebali M, Shahverdi AR et al. Gold nanoparticles for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major Iranian strain: an experimental study on animal model with methanol extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Pharm. Health. Sci. J. 1(1): 13-16 (2010).
- Dashtpeima AR, Moshfe AA, Manzoori L et al. The Effect(s) of Matricaria chamomilla on Leishmania major ulcers in Balb/c Mice. Armaghane. Danesh. 20(2), 127-137 (2015).
- Vinca alkaloids major effect of specific plant (Vinca) in the Leishmania major on In-vitro and In-vivo. J. School. Pub. Health. Inst. Health. Res. 1(2), 1-8 (2002).
- The effect of Echinacea purpurea on cutaneous leishmaniasis in mice infected with Leishmania major. Knowledge. Brings. J. 16(1), 61: 31-40 (2001).
- Fatahi BA, Fallahzadeh H, Mosadegh MH. Effectiveness of Lawsonia inermis Extract on Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Lesion in BALB/c Mice. Kerman. Uni. Med. Sci. J. 15(4): 329-335 (2008).
- The effect of Artemisia (Artemisia sieberi) essential oils on the wound of Leishmania major in BALB/C mice. Feiz. J. 11(3): 52-56 (2007).
- The effect of alcoholic extract of barberry wounds caused by Leishmania major in BALB /C mice. Fac. Pub. Health. Inst. Health. Res. J. 5(3): 35-42 (2007).
- Gholami AR, Khamesipour A, Moemeni A et al. The effect of garlic cream containing 5% in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis: a randomized double-blind study. J. Skin. Dis. 3(3), 3-6 (2000).
- Bafghi AF, Pournaki AM, Hejazian SH. Immunosupressive effects survey of Lavandula spica L. extract on cutaneous leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice. Iran. J. Med. Aroma. Plants. 25(4), 540-546 (2010).
- Malekzadeh F. Antimicrobial activity of Lawsoniaintermis L. Appl. Microbiol. 16(4): 663-664 (1986).
- Birdsall TC, Kelly GS. Berberine therapeutic potential of an alkaloid found in several medicinal plants. Alt. Med. Rev. 2(2), 94-103 (1997).
- Chapman H. Dictionary of natural products. Sci. Data. Div. p6090 (1994).
- Golzarand M, Ebrahimi-Mamaghani M, Arefhosseini SR et al. Effect of processed Berberis vulgaris in apple vinegar on blood pressure and inflammatory markers in type 2 diabetic patients. J. Diab. Metab. Disorders. 7, 3 (2008).
- Ikram M. A review on the chemical and pharmacological aspects of genus Berberis. Planta. medica. 28(8), 353-358 (1975).
- Jonkers D, Sluimer J, Stobberingh E. Effect of garlic on vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Antimicrobial. Agents. Chemotherapy. 43(12), 3045-3045 (1999).
- Jain RC. Anti tubercular activity of garlic oil. Indian. J. Pathol. Microbiol. 41(1), 131 (1998).
- Ghannoum MA. Inhibition of Candida adhesion to buccal epithelial cells by an aqueous extract of Allium sativum (garlic). J. Appl. Bacteriol. 68(2), 163-169 (1990).
- Weber ND, Andersen DO, North JA et al. In vitro virucidal effectsof Allium sativum (garlic) extract and compounds. Planta. Med. 58(5), 417-423 (1992).
- Groppo FC, Ramacciato JC, Motta RH et al. Antimicrobial activity of garlic against oral streptococci. Int. J. Dent. Hyg. 5(2), 109-115 (2007).
- Ross ZM, O'Gara EA, Hill DJ et al. Antimicrobial properties of garlic oil against humanenteric bacteria: evaluation of methodologies and comparisons with garlic oil sulfides and garlic powder. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67(1), 475-480 (2001).
- Ellmore G, Feldberg R. Alliin lyase localization in bundle sheaths of Garlic cloves (Allium sativum Linn.). Am. J. Bot. 81(1), 89-94 (1994).
- Barbour EK, Dankar S. Essential oils of Eucalyptus and peppermint improve the homogeneity of immune responses and performance in MG/H9N2-infected broilers. J. Am. Holistic. Vet. Med. Assoc. 24, 23-27 (2005).
- Barbour EK, Elhakim RG, Kaadi MS et al. Evaluation of the histopathology of the respiratory system inessential oil-treated broilers following achallenge with Mycoplasma gallisepticum and/or H9N2 Influenza Virus. Intern. Appl. Res. Vet. Med. 4(4), 293-300.
- Sullivan AM, Laba JG, Moore JA et al. Echinacea-induced macrophage activation. Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol. 30, 553 (2008).
- Pellati F, Benvenuti S, Magro L et al. Analysis of phenolic compounds and radical scavenging activity of Echinacea spp. J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 35, 289 (2004).
- Bauer R, Wagner H. Echinacea species aspotential immunostimulatory drugs. In: Wagner, H. Economic and Medicinal Plant Research. Academic Press, London, England (1991).
- Barene I, Daberte I, Zvirgzdina L et al. The complex technology on products of German chamomile. Medicina. 39(2), 127(2003).
- Irace C, Rossetti M, Carallo C et al. Transaminase levels in the upper normal range are associated with oral hypoglycemic drug therapy failure in patients with type 2 diabetes. Acta. Diabetol. 49 (3), 193-197 (2012).
- Plessi M, Bertelli D, Albasini A. Distribution of metals and phenoliccompounds as a criterion to evaluate variety of berries and related jams. Food. Chem. 100, 419-427 (2007).
- Dinani NJ, Asgary A, Madani H et al. Hypocholesterolemic andantiatherosclerotic effect of artemisia aucheriin hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Pak. J. Pharm. Sci. 23(3), 321-325 (2010).
- Hakimi Maybodi MH, Afkhami Aghdaee M, Mijalili BF. An investigation into biological activities of Artemisia Persia’s essential oil. Pajoohesh. Sazandegi. 16(61), 2-5 (2003).
- Shakarami J, kamali K, Moharrmi Pour S et al. Fumigant toxicity andrepellency of essential oil of Artemisiaaucheri on four species of stored pest. Pests. Dis. Plants. 71(2), 61-76 (2003).
- Han J, Zhao YL, Shan LM et al. An experiment on standardized cellculture assay in assessing the activities ofComposite Artemisia Capillaris Tablets against hepatitis B virus replication in vitro. Chin. J. Integr. Med. 11(1), 54-56 (2005).
- Willcox M, Rasoanaivo P, Sharma VP et al. Comment on: Randomized controlled trial of a traditional preparation ofArtemisia annua L. (Annual Wormwood) inthe treatment of malaria. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 98(12), 755-756 (2004).
- Said Fernández S, Ramos Guerra MC, MataCárdenas BD et al. In vitro antiprotozoal activity of theleaves of Artemisia ludoviciana. Fitoterapia. 76(5), 466-468 (2005).
- Sadeghi Fard H, Zareian P. Survey onanalgesic effect of Hydro-alcoholic extract ofArtemisia aucheri in two models of acute andchronic pain. J. Kordestan. Univ. Med. Sci. 13(4), 30-36 (2008).
- Mansour Ghanaie F, Sigaroudi S, Mobasheri HR et al. Effect of Artemisia on Asthma. Faiz. 7(25), 60-63 (2003).
- Knobloch K, Pauli A, Iberl B. Antibacterial and antifungal properties of essential oil components. J. Essent. Oil. Res. 1(3), 119-128 (1989).
- Burt S. Essential oils: their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods – a review. Int. J. Food. Microbiol. 94(3), 233-253 (2004).
- Sikkema J, de Bont JA, Poolman B. Interactions of cyclic hydrocarbons with biological membranes. J. Biol. Chem. 269(11), 8022–8028 (1994).
- Sikkema J, de Bont JA, Poolman B. Mechanisms of membrane toxicity of hydrocarbons. Microbiol. Rev. 59(2), 201-222 (1995).
- Conner DE, Beuchat LR. Effects of essential oils from plants on growth of food spoilage yeasts. J. Food. Sci. 49(2), 429-434 (1984).
- Bahmani M, Rafieian-Kopaei M, Parsaei P et al. The anti-leech effect of Peganum harmala L. extract and some anti-parasite drugs on Limnatis nilotica. Afr. J. Microbiol. Res. 6(10), 2586-2590 (2012).
- Asadi-Samani M, Bahmani M, Rafieian-Kopaei M. The chemical composition, botanical characteristic and biological activities of Borago officinalis: a review. Asian. Pac. J. Trop. Med. 7, S22-S8 (2014).
- Bahmani M, Banihabib E, Rafieian-Kopaei M et al. Comparison of disinfection activities of nicotine with copper sulphate in water containing limnatis nilotica. Kafkas. Univ. Vet. Fak. 21(1), 9-11 (2015).